aquarium-lighting-for-planted-tanks On Google+
Mon, 14 May 2018 23:47:14 +0200
Orphek Reef Aquarium LED Lighting
Client shared a photo of his freshwater planted aquarium with two new Orphek OR 120 Bar LED Light Today’s pictures come from Maryland, USA. Edward, our client, has recently bought two OR120 Freshwater Planted Lights for his 80 gallon planted tank and we…


Client shared a photo of his freshwater planted aquarium with two new Orphek OR 120 Bar LED Light Today's pictures come from Maryland, USA. Edward, our client, has recently bought two OR120 Freshwater Planted Lights for his 80 gallon planted tank and we would like to share these nice photos
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Sun, 11 Mar 2018 19:02:12 +0100
In God's Service
This Fish Aquarium LED Clock Lamp with USB and Nature Sounds features unique creative design, multi-functions, and reliable quality.
This mini fish tank has recirculating water simulating running faucet. Allowing oxygenation of water for live fish. Backlighting LCD display is featured with alarm clock, calendar, time, date, temperature, and snooze. Adjustable overhead LED light and multi-color LED interior under water lights.


Holds approximately 1.5L of water.
Comes with decorative pebbles, an artificial plant, and a USB connector.
2 switches are used for turning on/off the LED light and switching the water pump on/off.
6 modes of tranquil nature sounds, like sounds of frogs, sounds of bird, sounds of nature, water, etc.
Dual compartment desk organizer or pen holder for setting pens, rulers, etc.
A great unique and unusual gift for your friends.


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Sun, 18 Feb 2018 08:07:57 +0100
Hinterfeld Hinterfeld
Which aquarium Chihiros LED suit my tank, A-Series, A-Series-Plus or RGB?

This is a very common question when you are looking at which light to buy for your aquarium. Let me talk about the difference between these three lights, and you may be able to decide which LED light suit your tank best within Chihiros product range.

A-Series, is a very economical LED light for aquarium. If you are just looking for a light to light up your fish tank, or you have a low tech plant tank with those low light plant. Then A-Series may be one of your best selection. It is low price but providing a very reasonable luminous level for your aquarium.

A-Series-Plus is an upgrade version of A-Series, they use the same LED but with two extra roll of LED. Which mean A-Series-Plus is 2/5 more power than A-Series. This light will give you the ability of growing most of the high light plant in your aquarium. With its dimmer switch that come with the light, allows you to dim the light if you think is too bright for your tank. This light is suitable for most planted tank, it has the power to grow red plant and carpets in most aquarium. For taller aquarium (<50cm height), I will recommend to buy other brands, such as TRIPLEH TT series, or Hinterfeld LH-KD series LED aquarium light as they have much better penetration for taller tank.

RGB series which use different colour LED to create white light. Because these led has green, blue, red leds, it provides better colour for your aquarium. It gives highlight to your fishes and plants, especially when you have fish like neon tetra, discuss etc. Red plant will look more red, and fishes have stunning colour as well. The down side is RGB light normally has lower luminance compare to white LED light. Which mean for the same power output, white LED would have much higher lux than the RGB light.

So in general, if you are looking to buy one of the Chihiros LED light, and you are growing some carpet, then you better go with the Chihiros A-Series-Plus LED light. If you have some red plants, but do not have those high light carpet plants, then you can consider the RGB series LED light. And if you have a very tight budget, then A-Series is the best for your selection.

You can check out our store
www.hinterfeld.com for all Chihiros LED aquarium lighting.


Looking to buy Fish Aquarium accessories, Check out the Best Online Aquarium Store for Air Pump, Heater etc. Place order anytime to buy fish supplies online.
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Sun, 04 Feb 2018 18:32:07 +0100
Mugambo Group Inc.
Fri, 17 Nov 2017 16:23:23 +0100
Mugambo Group Inc.
Product review for Caveen Mini USB LCD Desktop Lamp Light Fish Tank Aquarium LED Clock with 6 modes of tranquil nature sounds, fish tank ornaments. - Features: ☻ Creative design, multi-functions, and reliable quality. ☻ Mini fish tank with running water (recirculation).Hold about 1.5L of water. ☻ The water stored in the fish tank can be running circularly that fresh air can be provided for the fishes living in the fish tank. ☻ Come with decorative pebbles, an artificial plant, and a USB connector. ☻ Adjustable overhead LED light and multicolor LED interior lights under water. ☻ 2 switches are used for turning on/off the LED light and switching the water pump on/off. ☻ 6 modes of tranquil nature sounds, like sounds of frogs, sounds of bird, sunds of water, etc. ☻ Backlighting LCD display is featured with alarm clock, calendar, time, date, temperature, and snooze. ☻ Dual compartment desk organizer or pen holder for setting pens, rulers, etc. ☻ A great unique and unusual gift for your friends. ☻ Note: the moving water is powered by USB power. It will be running after you connecting the USB cable to PC. Specifications: ☞ Color: Black ☞


Amazon Price: $28.99 (as of November 17, 2017 3:01 pm - Details). Product prices and availability are accurate as of the date/time indicated and are subject to change. Any price and availability information displayed on the Amazon site at the time of purchase will apply to the purchase of this product.
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Mon, 25 Sep 2017 22:24:51 +0200
Carl Strohmeyer
SPECIAL: GroBeam #600 Ultima High Light Planted Aquarium Capable LED Strip- $109.99 Only until Sept. 26 (Limited Quantities) (Third "Specials" Cart)

• Highest useable output of light per energy consumed of ANY LIGHT (including other Aquarium LEDs).
As much as 3-4 times the useful energy output per input wattage as measured by PAR & PUR as popular economy LEDs such as the Finnex or Fluval or large black box LEDs!
The result when comparing "apples to apples" is that the AquaRay LED ends up often being less costly both up front and even more so long term!
As well, heat generation is much less due to this efficiency, so there is no need for a chiller during warm months unlike Metal Halide or large high wattage black box type LEDs!

Making these LEDs suitable for all freshwater & marine set-ups, including full reef tanks incorporating LPS/SPS hard corals.

AquaRay LED Spectrographs• With modern emitter & driver technology at high intensity, very exacting nanometer spikes can be obtained with the AquaRay LEDs whose emitter bin specifications are the cutting edge in aquarium lighting

The spectrograph/picture to the right demonstrates these emitters.

• Highest Efficiency of PAR per input energy.
By comparing PAR at the same depth (15" of air is the standard), take the input wattage and divide it by the PAR reading. You will find efficiencies as high as .08 watt of input energy per point of PAR in the AAP Reef White NP 2000 LED to as low as 2.7 watt per point of PAR in the Beamswork EA Timer FSPEC LED.
The better LEDs are under .30 watt (such as the Kessil at .28) with most LEDs falling in the .4 to .50 watt range.

• Low voltage & cool running utilizing large heat sinks & NO COOLING FANS TO BREAK DOWN due to higher efficiency drivers/PWM, UNLIKE most other popular LEDs; with the lowest running costs and carbon footprint of any lighting system available.


We are the ORIGINAL sellers of the TMC AquaRay LED with highest PUR EXCLUSIVE Emitters & proven PWM light controller technology! Ocean Blue NP, GroBeam, Reef White
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Wed, 20 Sep 2017 11:10:33 +0200
Gavin Li
High lumen fish tank light for planted aquarium adjustable LED aquarium light with switch.
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Mon, 21 Aug 2017 02:45:50 +0200
colinbarsby
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Sun, 16 Jul 2017 06:26:37 +0200
Aquarium Konnection
Aquarium Lights for Happy Fishredfire • July 4, 2017 • No Comments
Aquarium lighting fixtures are complete lighting units that mount on your tank. There are two reasons to have an aquarium lighting fixture. First, to simulate the natural light your fish would get in the wild, secondly, for you to see the fish and plants, and enjoy the vivid colors.

Light Fixtures for Freshwater Fish-only Tanks

Fish-only freshwater tanks are the most popular first aquariums. Artificial rocks and plastic plants decorate the tank, no living plants. The beauty of this for budding aquarists, is that you don’t have to get a fancy light fixture, as fish don’t photosynthesize! You can hone your lighting choice down to two factors. First, simulate the natural day/night light of your freshwater fish. Second, display your fish to show off their colors.

Popular freshwater tank fish come from tropical parts of the world where they live in shallow waters and get regular sunshine. Popular aquarium fish such as the cichlids, gourami, betta are all great for new aquarium owners. For bulbs, use full color spectrum ‘color enhancing’ bulbs.

Your fish will get stressed and unhealthy under unnatural light cycles. Keep on main day lighting no more than 8 hours a day. The main reason people go wrong with lighting for these systems is they do too much light and get algae problems. Never run actinic lights on your freshwater system – algae will multiply. Running the lights too long will promote algae bloom. It’s best to control the aquarium lights with an automatic timer.

For the best aquarium lighting experience, get an aquarium lighting fixture with lunar lights built in. The moon lights are inexpensive LEDs. Hybrid lighting fixtures keep each light source on separate power circuits. Automatic timers can switch each light to give a natural day/night lighting cycle, including dawn and dusk light.

Light Fixtures For Freshwater Planted Tanks

Freshwater planted systems are the next step up from fish-only tanks. Live plants nicer to look at, and with these primary producers in your tank, you’ve got a complete self sustaining ecology in your tank. Keeping live plants, your aquarium lighting fixture must provide the vital light that plants need to photosynthesize. Plants use chlorophyll to photosynthesize, this absorbs light at certain wavelengths (430nm and 680nm). They require light from both the red and blue parts of the color spectrum.

A dual bulb aquarium light fixture with a red plant growth bulb of 3000K and a full daylight of 6500K for vigorous healthy plants, especially when you are starting seedlings or cuttings. An added bonus of having both lamps is that daylight bulb brings out more of the colors, than using the plant growth bulb alone.

Light Fixtures For Saltwater Fish-only Tanks

Now let’s move on to the saltwater marine tanks. Without corals to think about, lighting choices are simple for saltwater fish-only tanks. Popular saltwater fish like clownfish, angelfish, and gobies don’t need uber-lighting fixtures. The aquarium lighting system you choose is to delight the viewer. After all, no one wants a dark box in their room. A daylight lamp of 5500K up to 10000K is a reasonable choice. Feel free to experiment with different bulbs till you get the fish colors popping just right. Just don’t overdo it with your photoperiod. Keep your day lighting down to less than 10 hours per day, too much lighting will boost algae growth.

One caveat – you may get the hankering to turn your fish-only tank into a mini-reef at some point in the future. Consider getting an aquarium light fixture with space for one or more bulbs than you need right now, in the future you can pop in an actinic bulb to keep your corals happy, and keep the same light fixture.

Light Fixtures for Reef Tanks

Finally, we come to the most challenging of tanks – the reef tank. The choice of aquarium lighting fixture is critical to the health of your corals and their symbiotic zooxanthellae. These are a beneficial algae that give nutrition to the corals. In return for the coral providing a nice safe home, the symbiotic algae repay their host with nutrition from photosynthesis. Coral needs this to stay healthy. Getting the right light to the zooxanthellae is the main lighting issue for reek-keepers.

Many people are nervous of taking the next step, and adding live rock to their saltwater tank. Industry marketing is to blame here -reading vendor’s blurb one would think that you need the most powerful and expensive Metal Halide lamps. It’s not true. There are many folks out there with excellent healthy corals, running on T5 HO or Power Compact fluorescent lighting fixtures. It all depends on your tank setup. Shallow tanks under 24″ in depth don’t necessarily require a MH lamp beaming down into the depths. Multiple T5 HO bulbs can provide enough intensity at these depths.

It also depends on your corals. These can be divided into three categories. Hard corals (stony corals) have an exterior skeleton built from calcium. Hard corals are referred to as LPS or Large Polyp Stony, and SPS or Small Polyp Stony. Given that the light must penetrate through the water, and through the hard body of the coral to reach the photosynthesizing algae, these kinds of corals can require advanced aquarium lighting fixtures.

Soft corals don’t use calcium to build a hard skeleton. These ‘softies’ include the leather, and mushroom corals. Generally soft corals need less intense light than the hard corals need to survive, meaning you can get away with High Output fluorescent lamps for the soft corals.

There are many factors which go into running a successful aquarium, and choosing correct aquarium lighting fixtures for your tank environment makes all the difference between success and failure of your aquarium project. Aquarium lighting fixtures must be selected on the basis of your tank’s setup.


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Fri, 07 Jul 2017 23:25:18 +0200
Kevin Novak
Q: What kind (wattage) of light should I use on my tank?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uWna4cKscc0

A: What you ask is a very general question that can have many answers. Need more info on tank, plants, fish, wherewithal’s and: Do you plain in the future to expand your hobby to bigger and better? Plants will grow very slowly if CO2 is omitted no matter what the lighting system used. Most hobbyist become disenchanted with their planted aquariums within a year because plant growth is not what they expected and Algae growth along with Diatom Algae (filament and ribbon) becomes the dominating feature in their aquariums.

Also, most hobbyist place their substrate directly on the bottom of their aquariums, the same as they did 122-years ago and this will compound their problems with cyanobacteria and Algae alike. These are frustrating Algae’s and bacteria that will push hobbyist to the point of giving up on planted tanks altogether. Then plastic plants are the alterative. If you don’t believe me watch some of Jacobs Aquarium videos on his ADA 75P tank he set up with $300.oo worth of ADA substrate and a $450.oo Kessil Amazon Sun pendent lighting system. See link…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g6SvtaoyfN8&t=330s

Great video maker and a great guy that tells it like it is and sells aquatic plant to the public. He is refreshingly honest to his followers; so, give him a looksee. I give this guy five stars for his honesty alone.

In my videos, I show the same 24x24x20 SCA Starfire Glass aquarium with sump to show hobbyist that planted tanks are forever changing ecosystem that no one plant or plants are the perfect plant/s for all circumstances. I also want to show that planted aquariums with sumps can equally survive as well as those that use canister filters only and lighting an aquarium does not have to cut into your budget so badly that you make compromises that will not work as well.

I have had two LED light strips that within 6-months respectively, some of the LED’s burnout: So much far 25,000-hrs of LED life! Used LED lights fixtures and Kessil pendants to me are worthless commodities because fixing burnout LED are not user friendly. Making your own on the other hand is an easy fix if an LED light bulb burns out.
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Thu, 06 Jul 2017 05:07:02 +0200
DStrayer Linda
When you are going to buy the light, it is not all about choosing just one that would great, but still provides enough light for the plants in the aquarium. This calls for looking for the best LED light for planted tank.
http://aquariumadviser.com/best-led-lights-for-planted-tank/


Whenever you walk into a room with a lighted aquarium, you would see that it is beautiful and would want to stare at it for longer. Well, it is important t
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Thu, 15 Jun 2017 00:00:23 +0200
Kevin Novak

QUOTE from a plant forum:

“Hi!

I've had planted tanks for years now. My 75 gallon is fitted with Kissell lighting, pressurized CO2 and dosing with dry fertilizers.

For years plants kept growing like crazy and I was sick of trimming them. Then, suddenly they stopped growing completely and started getting covered with diatom algae. Most fast-growing plants died off and I was left with just the moderate/slow growing plants. There was no change in terms of the tank's maintenance/conditions...

Now I've started again with new plants, CO2 and dosing, but my plants are not pearling again!!! I used to read forums where people complained about their plants not growing and used to wonder how that was even possible - coz plants need light, CO2 and fertilization. But strange that despite my providing all three, it's NOT working!!!

I've even tried switching from dry ferts to Flourish line of products, but that didn't work. Could my Kessil Tuna Sun lighting be an issue? (I used them when my plants were growing like crazy and the lighting is still pretty new and bright).

ANY suggestions/recommendations would be MUCH appreciated!!! I'd love for my plants to start growing/pearling like they used to!!!

Thanks in advance!”


What is being asked above is just one example of what happens when plants need a resting period and/or your substrate is exhausted of all nutrients to accommodate your plants needs. However, don’t throw that old substrate away because it’s time to rejuvenate it with iron once again.

http://anoxicfiltrationsystem.blogspot.com/2015/03/important-new-problem-in-uk-in-getting.html

The link above will tell you of a very cheap product that will once again enhance your substrate to its original state. The product is called Ironite and in the USA it is sold in most garden centers and hardware store across the country. It does require some rethinking on the hobbyist part on how and why your substrate became exhausted and did not replenish itself from the water column with new nutrients and ions.

As we all know farmers rotate their crops as not to exhaust the ground of all its nutrients and sometimes even plant nutrient giving plants in their fields like Medicago sativa (Alfalfa) so as not to exhaust any available nutrient supply that is left in the soil.

Well the same thing happens in our aquatic planted tanks but hobbyists think just because they add fertilizers to the substrate that that will do the trick. Moreover, because the substrate has not been lifted off the bottom of the aquarium (like using a plenum) the chemical and biological pathway that were once open to chemical and biological mediators has now stopped or slowed down to the point that available ions are not moving in and out of the substrate as freely as when first set up. Now the substrate has become and algae friendly source of food and higher order plants hobbyist use are exposed to these inhibitors from anaerobic zones from the substrate that impede the plants ability to photosynthesize. Algae on the other hand is a lover of Nitrates, ammonia ions and phosphates and the soil/substrate then become too acidic, that they become the dominating factor in the ecosystem along with the unwanted cyanobacteria that plagues ponds and aquarium alike. Until the substrate becomes open to the chemical and biological mediators and once again to oxygen it will stay as a death pool or a plant inhibitor.

As we all know farmers an even golf courses as with their turf, will aerate the ground by either turning it over or by aerating tools that will punch holes or core the turf to keep it open to aid beneficial bacteria. Aerating or aeration is nothing new to gardeners and formers but it seems to be something that hobbyist have overlooked by placing a substrate directly on the bottom of their tanks and not allowing oxygen to penetrate unabated into their substrates. Time then become their enemy and it seems like time always wins the battel of oxygen depredation in the substrate. Hobbyist depend on too much that the diffusion of ions will always be open to mediators but this is just not so.

When I experimented with different substrates with the Anoxic Filtration System, permeability and porewater capability with different substrates change with time because of unforeseen insults that change the electrical properties of the substrate. Over time the permeability and porewater management will change and in most cases, will change for the worse than the better.

The biggest biological filter of a planted tank is the substrate yet most hobbyist fail to realize their mistakes until the precipice of algae and cyanobacteria take over and dominate the higher order plants they are trying to grow. Affirmative action now must be taken and soon. It will not matter how much light, fertilizers or CO2 is added to the system because chemical and biological mediators are not working properly any longer.

To rectify this problem is easy and it does not require the hobbyist to buy new and/or better substrate. It is now time to do it right and forget about what you thought was the right way and this time do it right once and for all. The substrate has to be one that is lifted off the bottom of the tank glass bottom using a plenum and then add a ½” of substrate on top of the plenum. Then add Ironite, about 1/8” or less on top of that, then add the rest of the substrate to build the substrate up to 3-4” high for good root and root hair development. Make sure when you plant your plants that you do not disturbed this Ironite layer are it will turn your tank cloudy. It will look unsightly for a few days but it will eventually subside.

You have now have added iron back into the substrate to benefit not only the plants but also the bacteria that in their initial inceptive cell development need the iron ion to speed up growth. Now the diffusion of ions through the substrate will be unimpeded and oxygen and ions through electrical charge will stay open to biological and chemical mediators for years to come. I have had tanks set up for over 10-years without ever having a complete teardown of the system and Nitrates were at a low 5-ppm or less. Oxygen levels were at 1-ppm to .5-ppm in the substrate, low, but still good enough to keep heterotrophic facultative bacteria alive and working and leaving the ammonia ion for the plants to assimilate. I have Biocenosis clarification baskets set up in a similar theoretical way in an Anoxic filter stay open to chemical and biological mediators far over 28-years now without clogging and changing the porewater and permeability of the baskets themselves. Plants look for the ammonia ion first before they will use the Nitrogen ion because it is a food source that requires less chemical work for their amino acids and proteins. Nevertheless, hydrogen sulfide and methane are not part of the equation that plants as a foodsource need, but this is exactly what hobbyist are producing when they add a substrate directly to the bottom of an aquarium.

Here is a true example of just how important oxygen is to plant roots. Martha Stewart opens her house and gardens for people to visit from time to time. After showing her garden off to onlookers a few days later her lawn began to die off. Her gardener was perplexed over this very strange outcome and thought it was some kind of lawn disease that was killing off the grass. However, what they found out was prior to the showing of her garden it had rained and made the ground soft. By people walking on the lawn they compacted the earth to the point that oxygen depredation was taking place and the grass started dying off. It was not because of a diseased as they had thought, but because the roots of the grass no longer received oxygen and nutrients as they did preceding the showing.

The same thing happens in our aquariums. The substrate become more compact as time goes on just through gravity. If the substrate was on the low side of oxygen requirement by placing the substrate directly on the bottom of the aquarium then it will not take much more to cut off the oxygen altogether and cause oxygen depredation in the substrate. The exchange of ions will be hindering the chemolithotrophs to fix their carbon needs.

As stated in Wikipedia, QUOTE: “Known chemolithotrophs are exclusively microorganisms; no known macrofauna possesses the ability to utilize inorganic compounds as energy sources. Macrofauna and lithotrophs can form symbiotic relationships, in which case the lithotrophs are called "prokaryotic symbionts". An example of this is chemolithotrophic bacteria in giant tube worms or plastids, which are organelles within plant cells that may have evolved from photolithotrophic cyanobacteria-like organisms.”

NOTE: Cyanobacteria is about 4-5 billion years old and becomes the dominating bacteria once other bacteria become depleted or reduce.

I’m trying not to get into a lot of science here like I do in my blog:

anoxicfiltrationsystem.blogspot.com

But sometimes understanding what we scientist know will really help the hobbyist in understand why some things go array and for what reasons they do.
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Wed, 14 Jun 2017 18:17:13 +0200
Kevin Novak
QUOTE from a plant forum:

“Hi!

I've had planted tanks for years now. My 75 gallon is fitted with Kissell lighting, pressurized CO2 and dosing with dry fertilizers.

For years plants kept growing like crazy and I was sick of trimming them. Then, suddenly they stopped growing completely and started getting covered with diatom algae. Most fast-growing plants died off and I was left with just the moderate/slow growing plants. There was no change in terms of the tank's maintenance/conditions...

Now I've started again with new plants, CO2 and dosing, but my plants are not pearling again!!! I used to read forums where people complained about their plants not growing and used to wonder how that was even possible - coz plants need light, CO2 and fertilization. But strange that despite my providing all three, it's NOT working!!!

I've even tried switching from dry ferts to Flourish line of products, but that didn't work. Could my Kessil Tuna Sun lighting be an issue? (I used them when my plants were growing like crazy and the lighting is still pretty new and bright).

ANY suggestions/recommendations would be MUCH appreciated!!! I'd love for my plants to start growing/pearling like they used to!!!

Thanks in advance!”


What is being asked above is just one example of what happens when plants need a resting period and/or your substrate is exhausted of all nutrients to accommodate your plants needs. However, don’t throw that old substrate away because it’s time to rejuvenated it with iron once again.

http://anoxicfiltrationsystem.blogspot.com/2015/03/important-new-problem-in-uk-in-getting.html

The link above will tell you of a very cheap product that will once again enhance your substrate to its original state. The product is called Ironite and in the USA it is sold in most garden centers and hardware store across the country. It does require some rethinking on the hobbyist part on how and why your substrate became exhausted and did not replenish itself from the water column with new nutrients and ions.

As we all know farmers rotate their crops as not to exhaust the ground of all its nutrients and sometimes even plant nutrient giving plants in their fields like Medicago sativa (Alfalfa) so as not to exhaust any available nutrient supply that is left in the soil.

Well the same thing happens in our aquatic planted tanks but hobbyists think just because they add fertilizers to the substrate that that will do the trick. Moreover, because the substrate has not been lifted off the bottom of the aquarium (like using a plenum) the chemical and biological pathway that were once open to chemical and biological mediators has now stopped or slowed down to the point that available ions are not moving in and out of the substrate as freely as when first set up. Now the substrate has become and algae friendly source of food and higher order plants hobbyist use are exposed to these inhibitors from anaerobic zones from the substrate that impede the plants ability to photosynthesize. Algae on the other hand is a lover of Nitrates, ammonia ions and phosphates and the soil/substrate then become too acidic, that they become the dominating factor in the ecosystem along with the unwanted cyanobacteria that plagues pond and aquarium alike. Until the substrate becomes open to the chemical and biological mediators and once again to oxygen it will stay as a death pool or a plant inhibitor.

As we all know farmers an even golf courses as with their turf, will aerate the ground by either turning it over or by aerating tools that will punch holes or core the turf to keep it open to aid beneficial bacteria. Aerating or aeration is nothing new to gardeners and formers but is seems to be something that hobbyist have overlooked by placing a substrate directly on the bottom of their tanks and not allowing oxygen to penetrate unabated into their substrates. Time then become their enemy and it seems like time always wins the battel of oxygen depredation in the substrate. Hobbyist depend on too much that the diffusion of ions will always be open to mediators but this is just not so.

When I experimented with different substrates with the Anoxic Filtration System, permeability and porewater capability with different substrates change with time because of unforeseen insults that change the electrical properties of the substrate. Over time the permeability and porewater management will change and in most cases, will change for the worse than the better.

The biggest biological filter of a planted tank is the substrate yet most hobbyist fail to realize their mistakes until the precipice of algae and cyanobacteria take over and dominate the higher order plants they are trying to grow. Affirmative action now must be taken and soon. It will not matter how much light, fertilizers or CO2 is added to the system because chemical and biological mediators are not working properly any longer.

To rectify this problem is easy and it does not require the hobbyist to buy new and/or better substrate. It is now time to do it right and forget about what you thought was the right way and this time do it right once and for all. The substrate has to be one that is lifted off the bottom of the tank glass bottom using a plenum and then add a ½” of substrate on top of the plenum. Then add Ironite, about 1/8” or less on top of that, then add the rest of the substrate to build the substrate up to 3-4” high for good root and root hair development. Make sure when you plant your plants that you do not disturbed this Ironite layer are it will turn your tank cloudy. It will look unsightly for a few days but it will eventually subside.

You have now have added iron back into the substrate to benefit not only the plants but also the bacteria that in their initial inceptive cell development need the iron ion to speed up growth. Now the diffusion of ions through the substrate will be unimpeded and oxygen and ions through electrical charge will stay open to biological and chemical mediators for years to come. I have had tanks set up for over 10-years without ever having a complete teardown of the system and Nitrates were at a low 5-ppm or less. Oxygen levels were at 1-ppm to .5-ppm in the substrate, low, but still good enough to keep heterotrophic facultative bacteria alive and working and leaving the ammonia ion for the plants to assimilate.

I have Biocenosis clarification baskets set up in a similar theoretical way in an Anoxic filter stay open to chemical and biological mediators far over 28-years now without clogging and changing the porewater and permeability of the baskets themselves. Plants look for the ammonia ion first before they will use the Nitrogen ion because it is a food source that requires less chemical work for their amino acids and proteins. Nevertheless, hydrogen sulfide and methane are not part of the equation that plants as a foodsource need, but this is exactly what hobbyist are producing when they add a substrate directly to the bottom of an aquarium.

Here is a true example of just how important oxygen is to plant roots. Martha Stewart opens her house and gardens for people to visit from time to time. After showing her garden off to onlookers a few days later her lawn began to die off. Her gardener was perplexed over this very strange outcome and thought it was some kind of lawn disease that was killing off the grass. However, what they found out was prior to the showing of her garden it had rained and made the ground soft. By people walking on the lawn they compacted the earth to the point that oxygen depredation was taking place and the grass started dying off. It was not because of a diseased as they had thought, but because the roots of the grass no longer received oxygen and nutrients as they did preceding the showing.

The same thing happens in our aquariums. The substrate become more compact as time goes on just through gravity. If the substrate was on the low side of oxygen requirement by placing the substrate directly on the bottom of the aquarium then it will not take much more to cut off the oxygen altogether and cause oxygen depredation in the substrate. The exchange of ions will be hindering the chemolithotrophs to fix their carbon needs.

As stated in Wikipedia, QUOTE: “Known chemolithotrophs are exclusively microorganisms; no known macrofauna possesses the ability to utilize inorganic compounds as energy sources. Macrofauna and lithotrophs can form symbiotic relationships, in which case the lithotrophs are called "prokaryotic symbionts". An example of this is chemolithotrophic bacteria in giant tube worms or plastids, which are organelles within plant cells that may have evolved from photolithotrophic cyanobacteria-like organisms.” Cyanobacteria is about 4-5 billion years old and becomes the dominating bacteria once other bacteria become depleted or reduce.

I’m trying not to get into a lot of science here like I do in my blog:

anoxicfiltrationsystem.blogspot.com

But sometimes understanding what we scientist know will really help the hobbyist in understand why some things go array and for what reasons they do.
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